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Hyper Threading

Hyper-Threading Technology

on the Intel® XeonTM Processor

Family for Servers

Offering increased server performance

through on-processor thread-level parallelism

Contents

Introduction 3

Overview of Hyper-Threading Technology 4

Resource Utilization 5

Microarchitectural Details 6

How Server Platforms Use Hyper-Threading Technology 8

How Software Takes Advantage of Hyper-Threading Technology 9

Business Benefits of Hyper-Threading Technology 10

Summary 10

Introduction

Hyper-Threading Technology is a groundbreaking innovation

from Intel that enables multithreaded server software applications

to execute threads in parallel within each processor

in a server platform. The Intel® XeonTM processor family uses

Hyper-Threading Technology, along with the Intel® NetBurstTM

microarchitecture, to increase compute power and throughput

for today’s Internet, e-Business, and enterprise server

applications. This level of threading technology has never

been seen before in a general-purpose microprocessor.

Hyper-Threading Technology helps increase transaction rates,

reduces end-user response times, and enhances business

productivity providing a competitive edge to e-Businesses

and the enterprise. The Intel Xeon processor family for servers

represents a significant leap forward in processor design

and performance by being the first Intel®-based processor

to support thread-level parallelism on a single processor.

Intel’s commitment to providing businesses with worldclass

performance is long-standing. Each new processor

introduction and microarchitecture shift has resulted in

significant performance advances. The Intel Xeon processor

family for servers has changed the landscape of processor

design and performance by implementing support for multiple

software threads on each processor core. Hyper-Threading

Technology provides thread-level-parallelism (TLP) on each

processor resulting in increased utilization of processor

execution resources.

With processor and application parallelism becoming more

prevalent, today’s server platforms are increasingly turning to

threading as a way of increasing overall system performance.

Server applications have been threaded (split into multiple

streams of instructions) to take advantage of multiple

processors. Multithreaded applications are designed to

be separated into distinct execution streams, or threads.

These applications make the best use of multiple processors

because they are designed with their own execution and

performance in mind rather than relying on operating systems

or compilers. For example, most Java Virtual Machine*

implementations are multithreaded, as many of the

administrative tasks are separate threads. Multi-processingaware

operating systems can schedule these threads for

processing in parallel, across multiple processors within the

server system. These same applications can run unmodified

on the Intel Xeon processor family for servers and take

advantage of thread-level-parallelism on each processor

in the system. Hyper-Threading Technology complements

traditional multi-processing by offering greater parallelism

and performance headroom for threaded software.

Dual-processing server applications in the areas of Web

serving, search engines, security, streaming media, departmental

or small business databases, and e-mail/file/print can

realize benefits from Hyper-Threading Technology using

Intel Xeon processor-based servers. Multi-processing server

applications in the areas of customer relationship management,

media servers, site management, enterprise databases,

business intelligence, collaboration/e-mail and supply

chain management can also reap tangible benefits from

Hyper-Threading Technology using the Intel Xeon processor

MP in 4-way, 8-way and above servers. All of these types

of solutions, and more, can take advantage of the faster

response times and higher transaction rates offered by

Hyper-Threading Technology. As software applications

continue to be optimized to take greater advantage of

processor parallelism, Hyper-Threading Technology

provides an additional boost for newer capabilities

and the growing needs of today’s businesses.

This paper explains how Hyper-Threading Technology works

within the processor, and describes how server platforms,

operating systems and server applications take advantage of

it. While this focuses exclusively on servers, Hyper-Threading

Technology is not restricted to servers. Intel has also introduced

Hyper-Threading Technology into workstations,

business desktops and consumer desktops. For a discussion

of how Hyper-Threading Technology is implemented

on workstations, and the benefits realized, please refer

to the “Intel’s Hyper-Threading Technology: Delivering

Performance Boosts for Workstations” document.

Overview of Hyper-Threading Technology

Hyper-Threading Technology is a form of simultaneous

multithreading technology (SMT), where multiple threads

of software applications can be run simultaneously on

one processor. This is achieved by duplicating the architectural

state on each processor, while sharing one set

of processor execution resources. The architectural state

tracks the flow of a program or thread, and the execution

resources are the units on the processor that do the

work: add, multiply, load, etc.

Let’s use a manufacturing plant as an analogy of a processor.

In a traditional manufacturing plant there are multiple assembly

lines (execution resources) and one supervisor (architectural

state) that keeps track of orders (threads) and keeps

them moving through the plant. Our supervisor can keep the

assembly lines within the plant working in parallel, but if

he/she has to wait for a part, an assembly line may slow

down while waiting for the part as well. In the case of a processor,

an execution unit may have to wait for data from disk.

With Hyper-Threading Technology, each manufacturing plant

is enabled to have two supervisors (or two architectural states).

They share the same common set of assembly lines within

the plant. When one of the supervisors is waiting for a part

to be delivered, the other supervisor can make use of the

assembly lines – resulting in a more efficient, higher performing

manufacturing plant. Now the plant can turn out more

goods per hour since the assembly lines are running and being

utilized more often. There was no need to add assembly

line resources; we’re just using them more effectively.

In Figure 1, the left-hand configuration represents a traditional

multi-processor (MP)-based system with two discrete

physical processors. Each processor has its own set of processor

execution resources and its own single architectural

state. The right-hand configuration in Figure 1 represents

an Intel Xeon processor family-based multi-processor

system where each processor features Hyper-Threading

Technology. As you can see, the architectural state for

each processor is duplicated, but each still has one

set of execution resources.

When scheduling threads, the operating system treats the

two separate architectural states as two separate “logical”

processors. Multi-processor-capable software applications

can run unmodified with twice as many logical processors

to use. Each logical processor can respond to interrupts

independently. The first logical processor can track one

software thread, while the second logical processor can

track another software thread simultaneously. Because

the two threads share one set of execution resources, the

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Dual Intel® XeonTM Processor-based System

with Hyper-Threading Technology

Architectural State

Processor Execution

Resources

Architectural State

Architectural State

Architectural State

Processor Execution

Resources

Architectural State

Processor Execution

Resources

Architectural State

Processor Execution

Resources

Traditional Multi-Processor (MP)-based

System

System Bus System Bus

Figure 1: A multi-processor (MP)-based system with Hyper-Threading Technology duplicates the architectural

state on each physical processor, providing two “logical” processors per physical processor.

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Hyper-Threading Technology on the Intel® XeonTM Processor Family for Servers

second thread can use resources that would be otherwise

idle if only one thread was executing. The result is

an increased utilization of the execution resources within

each physical processor package.

This improvement in CPU resource utilization yields higher

processing throughput for multithreaded applications. For

example, one logical processor can execute a floating-point

operation while the other logical processor executes an

addition and a load operation. Hyper-Threading Technology

is complementary to MP-based systems because the

operating system can not only schedule separate threads

to execute on each physical processor simultaneously,

but on each logical processor simultaneously as well.

This improves overall performance and system response

because many parallel threads can be dispatched sooner

due to twice as many logical processors being available

to the system. Even though there are twice as many logical

processors available, they are still sharing one set of

execution resources. So the performance benefit of another

physical processor with its own set of dedicated execution

resources will typically offer greater performance levels. In

other words, Hyper-Threading Technology is complementary

to multi-processing by offering greater parallelism within

each processor in the system, but is not a replacement

for dual or multi-processing.

Resource Utilization

To understand how Hyper-Threading Technology improves

resource utilization, let’s look at an MP-based system

containing two traditional superscalar processors that can

each execute three instructions every cycle and is running

two separate threads. As shown in Figure 2A, each box

within each processor represents an execution unit. Each

A. Traditional Multi-processing:

Here you see a multi-processing

system with two physical processors.

One processor is executing the dark

blue thread, and another processor

is executing the light blue thread.

The peak execution bandwidth here

is 6 instructions every cycle, 3 on

each processor. The system may

operate at less than peak bandwidth,

as indicated by the abundance of

idle (white) execution units.

B. Hyper-Threading Technology on a

Multi-processor (MP)-based System:

Here you see a multiprocessing system

with two physical processors featuring

Hyper-Threading technology. One

processor is simultaneously executing

the dark blue and light blue threads,

while another processor executes the

two patterned threads. On such a system,

you can see that the system may execute

at closer to peak bandwidth.

Time (proc. cycles)

A

Multi-processing

System Using Two

Superscalar Processors

B

Multi-processing with

Hyper-Threading

Technology

Figure 2: On a traditional multi-processor (MP)-based system, the idle (white) execution units indicate execution resource utilization is not

optimum, while Hyper-Threading Technology not only allows multiple threads to execute simultaneously, but also reduces the number of idle

execution units. This figure is a demonstration of the concepts underlying Hyper-Threading Technology and does not attempt to show the

resource utilization patterns of any existing processor or software application.

set of three horizontal boxes within each processor shows

how the three execution units are being used during a given

clock cycle. If a box is white, that execution unit is idle during

the given clock cycle (e.g., if one box is white during a clock

cycle, then one-third of the resources are idle and two-thirds

of the resources are utilized during that clock cycle). The

vertical sets indicate the utilization of the three execution

units over time (during multiple clock cycles). The more white

boxes, the less efficient the utilization of execution resources.

Sometimes all the execution resources within a processor

are being used, and sometimes there are idle resources that

are waiting due to things like cache misses, branch mispredictions

or instruction dependencies for each thread.

Figure 2B shows the result of Hyper-Threading Technology

with the two processors now running two separate threads

simultaneously within each processor. It is easy to see that

we are now using the execution units more often and

reducing idle time on each processor. Resource utilization

within each processor can increase significantly, but it is

dependent on how each application is designed to use

threading and the resources within the processor. If an

application is multithreaded in such a way that different

threads can use different resources in parallel (such as

scheduling integer computation-intensive work on one

logical processor while running floating-point computations

on the other), then throughput can increase significantly

within each processor and for the entire MP-based system.

Microarchitectural Details

Figure 3 shows a high-level block diagram of the Intel Xeon

processor family for servers.

With Hyper-Threading Technology, the execution resources

on the Intel Xeon processor family are shared by two architectural

states, or two logical processors. The majority of

the execution resources are in the Rapid Execution Engine

and Integrated Cache Subsystem, which process instructions

from both threads simultaneously. The Fetch and Deliver

engine and Reorder and Retire block partition some of

the resources to alternate between the two threads.

Fetch and Deliver Engine

The Fetch and Deliver engine alternates between fetching

instructions from one logical processor and the other, and

sends these instructions to the Rapid Execution Engine for

processing. At the Level 1 Execution Trace Cache, one line

is fetched for one logical processor, and then one line is

fetched for the other logical processor. This continues,

alternating back and forth, as long as both logical processors

need to use the Execution Trace Cache.

If one logical processor is not requesting use of the cache,

then the other logical processor can use the full bandwidth

of the Execution Trace Cache.

Rapid Execution Engine

At the Rapid Execution Engine, both logical processors

execute simultaneously. The Rapid Execution Engine takes

instructions from the instruction queues and sends them to

the execution units as fast as it can. The instructions are

selected based only on dependencies and availability of

execution units. The instructions may be selected out-oforder,

meaning that later instructions that are independent

can be scheduled before earlier instructions. The execution

core is for the most part oblivious to what instructions

belong to which logical processor, and the schedulers do not

distinguish between instructions of different logical processors.

The schedulers simply map independent instructions in the

instruction queues to available execution resources. For

example, a scheduler may map two instructions from thread

#1, and one instruction from thread #2 in the same cycle.

Integrated Cache Subsystem

The Integrated Cache Subsystem delivers data and

instructions to the processor core at a high speed with

larger cache lines than previous-generation processors.

Because the Integrated Cache Subsystem is clocked at

the same rate as the processor core, as faster processors

are released, the cache speed can increase correspondingly

providing high-speed access to key data. The larger

cache line sizes also decrease average cache misses.

A large (up to 2MB), Integrated Three-Level cache is available

only on the Intel Xeon processor MP for 4-way and

above server platforms. This additional cache space is

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available for larger instruction and data sets, and significantly

reduces the average memory latency, which improves performance

for mid-range and high-end server applications.

The caches are shared by both logical processors and

are designed to minimize potential cache conflicts through

a high level of set-associativity, which helps ensure data

is well-retained in the caches. The shared caches also

provide the potential for super-linear speedups for some

applications, where one logical processor may be able to

prefetch instructions or data into the cache for the other

logical processor, so that the other logical processor does

not have to go to the system bus and fetch the instructions

or data again from system memory.

Reorder and Retire Block

The Reorder and Retire block takes all the instructions

that were executing out-of-order, and puts them back into

program order, then commits the state of those instructions

in program order. Instruction retirement alternates between

logical processors. Instructions are alternately retired for

one logical processor, then the other.

System Bus

The System Bus is designed to increase the throughput

of multi-processing and multithreaded server applications

and provide the necessary bandwidth for Hyper-Threading

Technology when accessing system memory. It uses signaling

and buffering schemes that allow for sustained data transfers.

When one of the logical processors cannot find the data it

needs in the Integrated Cache Subsystem, then the data

must be transferred over the system bus from memory.

In systems with four or more processors, the system bus

runs at 400 MHz and provides up to 3.2 GB/s bandwidth,

which can be up to four times the previous-generation

MP-based processor. For dual-processor (DP)-based server

applications, which typically are not as data intensive or

cache hungry and derive a greater benefit from increased

frequency and I/O, the system bus now runs at 533 MHz.

This provides up to 4.27 GB/s bandwidth, over four times

that of earlier generations of DP-based processors.

Intel® XeonTM Processor Family Details

Architectural State

Reorder

and

Retire

Architectural State

Rapid

Execution

Engine

Fetch and

Deliver

Engine

System Bus (400 MHz for Intel Xeon processor MP; 533 MHz for Intel Xeon processor)

Integrated Cache Subsystem

Level 1: Execution Trace Cache and Data Cache

Level 2: Advanced Transfer Cache (512KB)

Level 3: Integrated Three-Level Cache (2MB or 1MB – Intel Xeon processor MP only)

Figure 3: High-level block diagram of the Intel® XeonTM processor family for servers shows how

the various pieces of the microarchitecture relate to each other with Hyper-Threading Technology.

How Server Platforms Use

Hyper-Threading Technology

Server platforms based on the Intel Xeon processor

family have implemented the necessary changes in the

platform BIOS in order to recognize the logical processors

so that the operating system and software can utilize

Hyper-Threading Technology.

Figure 4 depicts a high-level block diagram of platform

components. Within each Intel Xeon processor in the

system, the two logical processors appear to the BIOS

and multi-processor-aware operating system (OS) as processors

available to the system and software applications.

During the MP-based system initialization process (also

called system boot), the BIOS counts and records the

number of logical processors available in the system. The

BIOS records only the first logical processor on each physical

processor into the MPS (Multi-processor Specification)

table to preserve backward compatibility with legacy operating

systems. These legacy operating systems will use the

MPS table only, and will not recognize the second logical

processor on each physical processor. They will work as

if Hyper-Threading Technology is not there.

The BIOS then records two logical processors for each

physical processor into the ACPI (Advanced Configuration

and Power Interface) table. Operating systems that use the

ACPI table can then proceed to schedule threads onto the

logical processors that the software license allows the system

to use. The BIOS and OS may report only the number of

logical processors available in the system. Platform management

software can typically be used to determine the

number of physical processors available in the system.

Multi-processor-aware operating systems can use the

same methods that they use today to schedule threads

on MP-based systems. Figure 5 illustrates how the OS

schedules the threads to the logical processors.

The Intel Xeon processor family with Hyper-Threading

Technology is fully backward compatible with existing

operating systems and applications. That is, legacy multiprocessor-

aware operating systems can run unmodified

on Intel Xeon processor-based platforms. Some of these

legacy operating systems (such as Windows NT*) may

not recognize the second logical processor and may not

take advantage of Hyper-Threading Technology, but are

compatible with the Intel Xeon processor family and will

run unchanged. Today’s current operating systems (such

as versions of Windows* 2000 Server, Linux* and Novell

NetWare*) can recognize two logical processors and can

utilize Hyper-Threading Technology, depending on OS

license configurations (check with your operating system

vendor for how Hyper-Threading Technology effects licensing

in these versions). Many of the newer operating systems,

either released or soon to be released (such as versions

of Microsoft Windows*.NET Server, Microsoft Windows XP*

Professional, and certain distribution versions of Linux such

as Red Hat 2.4*), include further optimizations for Hyper-

Threading Technology. These newer operating systems can

distinguish fully between physical and logical processors,

allowing them to offer improvements in scheduling and

idle loops in order to realize optimal performance gains.

Moreover, in these operating systems Hyper-Threading

Technology enabled processors are recognized as single

physical processors for licensing purposes (e.g. a four-way,

Hyper-Threading Technology enabled server is recorded and

licensed as four processors, not eight logical processors).

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Software Applications    

Operating System

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)

Intel® XeonTM Processor Family-based Platform

Figure 4: Platform components of Intel® XeonTM processor family

for servers include the processor and other system hardware

components, BIOS, operating system, and software applications.

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How Software Takes Advantage

of Hyper-Threading Technology

Today’s server software is multithreaded and can take

advantage of Hyper-Threading Technology without changes.

The software application uses the operating system to

schedule threads across the multiple logical processors

available in the system, much like it does on traditional

MP-based systems. It’s the system BIOS and operating

system that determine which logical processors are available

for use. When considering Hyper-Threading Technology

and its logical processors, software vendors that use perprocessor

license models should continue to base their

models on physical processor count. Consult your software

vendor to determine which versions and system

configurations utilize Hyper-Threading Technology on

Intel Xeon processor family-based platforms.

Applications that exhibit good threading methods and

scale well on MP-based servers today are likely to take

advantage of Hyper-Threading Technology. The performance

increase seen is highly dependent on the nature of the

application, the threading model it uses, as well as system

dependencies. It has been shown that some server applications

can experience up to 30 percent additional performance

due to Hyper-Threading Technology in the

Intel Xeon processor family implementation.

Figure 6 represents an example of additional performance

offered by Hyper-Threading Technology in a multi-processing

environment. Let’s start with base performance on one

traditional processor in a DP-based system. With Hyper-

Threading Technology enabled, performance on multithreaded

applications on the first processor can see an

increase. If we added a second physical processor to the

Processor:

Time

Idle

No threads scheduled. The OS schedules

a thread on logical

processor #1.

No threads are

executing on logical

processor #2.

The OS schedules

a thread on logical

processor #2. Both

logical processors

are now active.

The thread on logical

processor #1 finishes,

and logical processor

#1 now becomes idle.

The OS schedules

another thread on

logical processor #1.

Now both logical

processors are

active again.

Figure 5: The operating system schedules threads on the two logical processors, alternating back and forth as threads complete.

Base Performance on First Processor

Without Hyper-Threading Technology

First

Processor

Second

Processor

Additional

Performance

from

Hyper-Threading

Technology

Figure 6: Performance gains attributed to Hyper-Threading

Technology on a dual-processor (DP)-based system.

traditional dual-processing system, we see that performance

can increase above the level obtained using Hyper-

Threading Technology on the first processor. Performance

gains attributed to additional physical processors are typically

greater because you have more dedicated processor

execution resources to use (this has been shown to be as

much as 80 percent in some cases). If we were to add a

second physical processor with Hyper-Threading Technology

enabled, we can see an additional performance gain on

top of the traditional dual-processor performance. Similar

to traditional dual-processor and multi-processor performance

scaling results, the performance increase realized

from Hyper-Threading Technology is highly dependent on

the nature of the application, the threading model it uses,

as well as system dependencies.

Hyper-Threading Technology complements the scalability

offered in a traditional multi-processing environment offering

higher levels of performance headroom. With parallelism

and threading becoming more prevalent, server applications

are expected to be further optimized for Hyper-Threading

Technology and the Intel NetBurst microarchitecture to

yield optimal levels of performance going forward.

Business Benefits of

Hyper-Threading Technology

Hyper-Threading Technology can result in many

benefits to e-Business and the enterprise:

Improved reaction and response times

for end-users and customers

Increased number of users that

a server system can support

Handle increased server workloads

Higher transaction rates for e-Businesses

Greater end-user and business productivity

Compatibility with existing server applications

and operating systems

Headroom to take advantage of enhancements

offered by future software releases

Headroom for future business growth

and new solution capabilities

Solutions that run on both dual-processing and multiprocessing

servers can see benefits from the Intel Xeon

processor family with Hyper-Threading Technology.

Dual-processing servers based on the Intel Xeon processor

deliver compute power at unparalleled value and

versatility for departmental servers, Internet infrastructure

(for example, Web-caching, streaming media, search

engine and security), mail server and Small & Medium

Business (SMB) server applications. The combination of

the Intel NetBurst microarchitecture and Hyper-Threading

Technology provides outstanding performance and headroom

for peak Internet server workloads, resulting in faster

response times and support for more users.

Multi-processing servers (4 processors and greater) based

on the Intel Xeon processor MP provide industry-leading

compute power and throughput for critical e-Business and

enterprise server workloads; such as customer relationship

management, supply chain management, middleware and

application servers, collaboration/e-mail, media servers,

site server management, enterprise databases, and business

intelligence. The combination of the Intel NetBurst

microarchitecture, Hyper-Threading Technology, and the

additional Integrated Three-Level Cache delivers outstanding

throughput and headroom for larger server workloads,

resulting in increased transaction rates, faster response

times, support for more users, and improved availability

and scalability for your e-Business and enterprise.

Summary

Hyper-Threading Technology is groundbreaking innovative

technology that Intel has seamlessly integrated into today’s

industry-standard server infrastructure via the Intel Xeon

processor family. With two logical processors available per

each physical processor, multithreaded server applications

can now take advantage of thread-level parallelism on each

physical processor for additional performance on dualprocessing

and multi-processing servers.

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Today dual-processing and multi-processing-aware

operating systems and threaded server applications can

run unchanged on the Intel Xeon processor family, and

many can take advantage of Hyper-Threading Technology

for immediate business benefits. Hyper-Threading Technology

complements today’s DP and MP-based servers by providing

additional headroom for future growth and new server

capabilities just on the horizon. Today and tomorrow’s

enterprise can utilize the Intel Xeon processor family with

Hyper-Threading Technology for a competitive advantage.

 

Copyright © 2002 Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Intel NetBurst, and Intel Xeon are trademarks

or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.

*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. 1002/HB/SE/PG/10K CPlease Recycle 298505-002

Information in this document is provided in connection with Intel products. No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any

intellectual property rights is granted by this document. Except as provided in Intel’s Terms and Conditions of Sale for such products, Intel assumes

no liability whatsoever, AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL PRODUCTS

INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF

ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT. Intel products are not intended for use in medical, life saving, or life

sustaining applications. Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice.

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED “AS IS” WITH NO WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY,

NONINFRINGEMENT, FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OTHERWISE ARISING OUT OF ANY PROPOSAL,

SPECIFICATION OR SAMPLE.

Intel disclaims all liability, including liability for infringement of any proprietary rights, relating to use of information in this specification. No license,

express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property rights is granted herein, except that a license is hereby granted to copy

and reproduce this document for internal use only.

Designers must not rely on the absence or characteristics of any features or instructions marked “reserved” or “undefined.” Intel reserves these for

future definition and shall have no responsibility whatsoever for conflicts or incompatibilities arising from future changes to them.

The Intel Xeon processor may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published

specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request.

INTEL XEON

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